Is SpaceX's Raptor engine the king of rocket engines?

Everyday Astronaut

4 млн көрүүлөр652

    00:00 - Intro
    02:55 - Basic physics of rocket engines
    06:10 - Rocket engine cycles
    20:30 - Rocket fuel comparison
    30:40 - Raptor vs other rocket engines
    44:05 - Summary
    Article version -
    SpaceX's new raptor engine is a methane fueled full flow staged combustion cycle engine and its so hard to develop, no engine like this has ever flown before!
    Now this topic can be really intimidating so in order to bring the Raptor engine into context, we’re going to do an overview of a few common types of rocket engine cycles then compare the Raptor to a few other common rocket engines, like SpaceX’s current work horse, the Merlin, The Space Shuttle’s RS-25, the RD-180, Blue Origin’s BE-4 and the F-1 engine.
    And if that’s not enough, not only is SpaceX using a crazy engine cycle, they’re also going to be using Liquid Methane as their fuel, again something that no orbital rocket has ever used! So we’ll also go over the unique characteristics of liquid methane as a rocket fuel and see if we can figure out why SpaceX went with Methane for the Raptor engine.
    We'll also break down and explain all the different engine cycle types so you know what the full flow staged combustion cycle is, how it works, and how it compares to the other cycles.
    So by the end of this video hopefully we’ll have the context to know why the raptor engine is special, how it compares to other rocket engines, why it’s using methane and hopefully find out if the Raptor engine will be the new king of rocket engines…
    Rocket engine renders by @MartianDays MartianDays
    F-1 Turbopump photo provided by Mike Jetzer/
    HUGE thanks to my Moon Walker Patreon supporters! Blake Jacobs, Eli Burton, Jethro, Mac Malkawi, Neurostream, Ole Mathias Heggem
    Want to support what I do? Consider becoming a Patreon supporter for access to exclusive livestreams, our discord channel and subreddit! -
    The best place for all your space merch needs!
    All music is original! Check out my album "Maximum Aerodynamic Pressure" anywhere you listen to music (Spotify, iTunes, Google Play, Amazon, etc) or click here for easy links -
    I'm the cohost of an awesome podcast where we talk all about current technologies and how they shape our future! or here on KGup

    күнү жарыяланды Жыл мурун


    1. Joey Powell

      What an amazingly well done presentation.

    2. john hopkins

      aka EGR valve.

    3. Deanna Allison

      Brilliantly explained!

    4. Full Flow Stage Combustion Rocket Engine

      Oohh, Hello there thanks to my motherland for giving birth to me. But motherland just fall AND NOW... I A REBORN . p.s:Thank you for explaining how I operate bc some rocket ppl get high pressure at combustion chamber, that's why I am hard to get but I can save your fuel to to squeeze out your ISP. ; )

    5. Shirvan Mohammed

      OOh Tim looks like will weaton

    6. Lorne Duncan

      I'm confused. If space X has just got the contract from nasa to go to the moon, what happens to Artemis and it's rs 25 engines?

      1. Jonas Bradley

        So sls will still fly with its rs25 engines and it wil carry the astronauts into low lunar orbit than it will dock with a lunar starship and the starship will land on the moon

    7. Bean Man

      His eyes are two different colors that's pretty neat

    8. Illya Lysenko


    9. Luiz Antonio Mendes de Resende

      Levem em consideração a aterrizagem na vertical das turbinas )iguido dos nesmos atingem os controles de propulção no reverso . , coloquem um @nel em vo)ta da mesma o que ajudaria o pouzo e as dificuldades de equilibrio do foguete evitando retor dos ffluxos dos combustiveis para o controles . Abraços

    10. A330Turbinex

      Great video. Thanks a lot Tim.

    11. Helpful Sysops

      Gonna have to get to work on that dark matter reactor . . .

    12. Crazy Productions

      what about the F-1b engine?

    13. Jeremiah Smith

      As a father, I lost it at the “fathom” remark. Well done. 👏🏻

    14. Adambe The Gorilla

      Yes I realize I’m VERY uneducated, just very interested. If methane and LOX can share a very common tank shell due to the boiling temps being so similar, why can’t they just share one bigger tank, and thus use one turbine, lowering the overall weight of the fuel tanks and engine?

    15. Rachhanon Sam

      you sound like mark rober

    16. uggligr

      I believe the first planet to be colonized will be Ceres because it has plenty of water. Water is the most needed substance in high quantities of the materials found in space. I hope I'm wrong and that large quantities of water will be found in the permanently shadowed craters of the Moon. Mars should be treated like a National Park until we are absolutely, positively sure it is dead and always has been. But we are talking about the far, far future here. If we get fuel from Earth then methane is a good choice.

    17. Chuck Collins

      By far your best effort yet. Thanks so much for your easily digestible treatment of these complex engines.

    18. Thor Steiner

      I wonder if Tim will like this comment

    19. Jack price


    20. Navigator

      In 1967 , Soviet made 27 pcs of RD-270 and was tested it 27 time ( some of them even 3 time) so it is almost same number of Raptor engines...some 50 years after !

    21. Exot1cz 25

      i really gotta go to sleep



    23. Phoenix

      to me, the F1 is and probably always will be king. it is still somewhat viable in diciplines noone even thought about when building it and lets face it: its a grandpa, that thing is over half a century old. Apollo 4 is closer to the end, no, even the start, of WW1 than it is to now. when that engine was built, the highest tech of computers were metal rings welded onto a wiregrid by hand, yet it can still keep up.

    24. Jenson Hartmann

      Rocket Scientists hate us for this 1 simple trick!

    25. rdawood

      I don't usually comment on videos but had to stop and say thanks for making this. Incredible work! Subscribed

    26. kmarasin

      Hydrogen storage temperature isn't as big a deal as containment. The reason H2 needs to be kept cool is not to keep it liquid--that can be managed using pressurized tanks. The problem with hydrogen is that it's a very small molecule, the smallest multi-atom molecule. It tends to pass through ANY storage materials eventually. The rate of escape is dependent on pressure, and lowering the temperature lowers the pressure and thus the escape rate. Lowering the temperature to the boiling point of hydrogen would prevent escape, but that's prohibitively expensive even on Earth, except in the places where it's manufactured in large quantities. Larger molecules (like methane) can be contained indefinitely by a variety of materials without worrying about the temperature as much as the structural integrity of the container. Thrust-to-weight ratio of an engine usually doesn't matter much, because the weight of the engine is usually dwarfed by the weight of the fuel, usually by ten-to-one or more. What matters more are the thrust-to-SIZE ratio and the ISP. The engine size determines how many you can fit on the rocket's base, while the ISP helps determines available delta-v. Several of the other engines here are the endpoint of that line of reasoning, varying in thrust and reusability. It seems that SpaceX is betting that one engine design can meet all of their future needs. They need to be careful here; having 39 engines on one stage means 39 times as many points of failure. I don't know if they intend to build redundancy in by using more engines than needed by a stage and then running them at less that full power, so that any in-flight failures can be compensated for; but that seems like a cost that can be streamlined by designing a more reliable engine. Just the plumbing involved is a nightmare, as the Soviet engineers discovered when building the N1. SpaceX will be forced to design a new engine at some point in order to launch an all-up crewed Starship. Otherwise, several launches will be needed to assemble the ship in orbit by launching the uncrewed Starship, then the crew in a smaller launch, and finally the fuel.

    27. Paul Bogdanich

      The SLS engine is not an RS-25. The only thing they say about the designation is that it's "RS-25 optimized"). Anyway the SLS test burn turned in 452.3 ISP. That's a demonstrated ISP of 452.3. Say that again a demonstrated ISP of 452.3 for 8 minutes burn time. Makes the Raptor about look like a booger.

      1. Everyday Astronaut

        That’s 100% incorrect. The SLS is literally reusing space shuttle SSME’s (RS-25’s). Yes, it’s been slightly tweaked but it’s through and through an RS-25, they’re even manufacturing new ones called the RS-25E after the 16 shuttle left overs are used.

    28. NerdWorldNinja FoldingSpaceTime

      AOC says we should use methane cuz cows fart too much.

    29. Caleb Charlemagne

      RD-170 the previous version of RD-180

    30. Reuben Gonzales

      this was an amazingly informative video and now the raptor makes sense

    31. Caleb Charlemagne

      Now I know why the space shuttle is so expensive it’s because of its engines

      1. Apyr

        And now we are throwing them away after 1 use

    32. Caleb Charlemagne

      Why does RD-180 Have 2 engines?

    33. Caleb Charlemagne


    34. Caleb Charlemagne

      Bigger cylinders smaller fuel tank pressure fed example: fuel tank is placed inside the cylinder

    35. David Griffiths

      Absolutely awesome video, im a huge fan of all engines, this is top notch material... Educational, fun, detailed. What more can i say? Oh subscribed! 👍✌😁

    36. Otpyrc Ralph Pierre

      I watch this video about once a month. It's still just as fascinating. Excellent work!

    37. RemiVlog

      Amazing video! Thank you :D

    38. Kenny Tan

      29 mins in and I notice his eyes have different colours. Now I can't focus on the video DX

    39. Caleb Charlemagne


    40. Caleb Charlemagne

      For raptor Engine: u compressors 2 powerful

    41. Caleb Charlemagne

      What about we mix fuel and the oxidizer?

    42. Caleb Charlemagne

      Uhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh :/ Hydrogen???????????

    43. Real Nikolay

      Лайк за футболку

    44. Armand Andree

      This explains Rocket engines very well

    45. nicola d'attolico

      Puoi inserire sottotitoli in Italiano?

    46. Wilhelm

      Conclusion: If you were able to get the silver medal in every single sport at the olympics, you'd undeniably be the best athlete in the world.

    47. Wilhelm

      The F-1 was inefficient, but when what you can lift is only limited by your skyscrapers building skills, you don't really care. Just add more fuel.

    48. jim b

      for long outer planet manned missions, is there a fuel that is best for absorbing radiation to protect astronauts (like during big sun activity)

    49. Timothy Germann

      It would cool to see where the Soyuz RD-108A fits in to the mix

    50. Steve Richter

      Which engines use helium? I worry about the scarcity of that element.

      1. Apyr

        A lot of them

    51. Fallen Down

      I realized how revolutionary the Raptor Engine was after that video. Thank you 👍

    52. Гришка Булатов

      I still don't get the benefit of the 'full flow staged' engine. Doesn't it take the negatives from both fuel-rich and oxidizer-rich engines? How is it better than Oxidizer-rich engine?

    53. michael hart

      Interesting and instructive. But let me play Devil’s Advocate for a moment. My understanding is that space missions still spend the vast bulk of their energy escaping the Earth and achieving orbit. Further excursions require far far less energy. With the Space Shuttle, NASA appeared to have opted for solid rocket boosters as a sensible option to do a large amount of the Donkey work in the lower atmosphere. So to go to Mars, why not just strap on a few extra fireworks to some existing technology? The new engines look like fantastic engineering, but is the money perhaps being spent for the benefit of engine manufacturers, when there is already something much simpler which can do the job?

    54. Gianluca Nordio

      Crazy how you can explain in a easy way such a hard matter, amazing video 🔥

    55. tom pekarna

      "3.7 times smaller" This is a common grammatical error and is meaningless

    56. ZEM502

      Who came back after SN8, 9, 10, 11 exploded 😆

      1. Apyr

        Im here hoping the improvements made sunce sn8 makes sn15 land without exploding

    57. Bingy Bingy


    58. Jeff Bricmont

      Well, I spent about 90 minutes watching it...the first time! I'm gonna let it sink in a bit, then watch it again! :)

    59. marsbar 709

      Where is the fuel injector?

    60. Quamont

      Sorry if I missed this explanation at one point but how do you cool down hydrogen to 20°K and store it?

    61. Greg's World Kitchen

      Thanks for putting the hard work in for this video. I had no idea that rocket fuel pumps were turbo powered. I'd assumed they were electric. Learned something new. Also very interesting were the difference in fuel properties and the explanation of why CH4 is a good compromise. Well worth the watch and those 49 mins flew buy.

    62. Erwan Conan

      Man, I watched the whole video without a break here in France.... Wowww Wowwww Great Job Dude

    63. archeologist 22

      RD 190 is best rocket motore of world the nasa use RD 180 for atlas 5

      1. Apyr

        I'd go for RD 107 and 108, they are the most reliable engines yet

    64. 1a

      Your voice sounds like typical energetic american high school kid. I'm saying in a positive tone. amazing enthusiasm man!

    65. Rohan karthik

      Content was true Gem. Thank you!

    66. icuabc 123

      So when you purg ,you also get your turbos spooling up? Just don't do a lot of Coke.A four way in one hole ain't gonna work. Don't just shoot a little bit of juice, you have to spew it all full power. Don't be leaking, that could be bad. It's all about the thrust to weight ratio.....

    67. mix master playr

      any1 would think u & elon are best mates but he obviously hasnt shown u his FLESH ROCKET ENGINE just 4 inches in length runs on optimised saliva technology & when fully lubricated provides 0.5 nm of thrust @ 60 cycles per min the rocket actually swells by 2.5cm providing saliva count is high and dryness is at a minimum ...this 3 stage rocket has a 2 gram payload made of salt and bodily fluids wich can easily b ejected into any space however most musk fans prefere to swallow this salty mucas in the hope he will take them to mars

    68. cutzu cutz

      Man, this is quality content! This is how science should be taught.

    69. Ibtasam Arshad

      This was marvelous. I am a fan of your channel. Loved learning about it all over again though I am a rocket scientist. Thanks.

    70. LoparceGaming826


    71. Ramone Plunkett

      Because it burn clean the methane

    72. Wayne M

      I came here looking for gold and I found the meaning of existence

    73. markd315

      Rocketry: some of the only remaining evidence that capitalism even today continuously steals from and profits off of soviet socialist innovation.

    74. Allington Sousa

      I am in 2021 and not, the raptor is not the King of rocket engines, the raptor is the God of rocket engines and also still a prototype. The full flow is the future! All hail the raptor engine, the God of rocket engines hehehe.

    75. Michael Pal

      And lastly-This video is truly one of the greatest videos on the Internet!

    76. Michael Pal

      I was like..Oh..great remind me of my childhood model rockets and my love of rockets....Yeaaaaa..sure....freaking watched it 3 times! Ok-SOmeone tell me where to get methane-even a small engine would be great...Sub-Orbital clean up crew. Pick up decaying junk-sell it for scrap.

    77. The normal youtuber

      That’s why some of the engines in SFS have blue flames?

    78. Noteveo Anjo

      also se arch fouiriak

    79. Noteveo Anjo

      Oops Google motor change my words I write to bad.

    80. Noteveo Anjo

      I correct not tus is the

    81. Noteveo Anjo

      PC, can collect it? I only need to watch tus analyced data.

    82. Noteveo Anjo

      U can watch my simulation of this one mine video: Más sobre Aujeros Negros. And the demostration of íthis os índice my icore5 destroyed PC i askí if spain microscope that can get átoms in color one by one,van analice tus vid andana chip, only i do not any money to send my destroyed

    83. Noteveo Anjo

      Cool 111k! ,with 1/0=infinity U can obtain 0K,think in a CPU PC prossesor unit chip based in that and u obtain a computer system with infinity memory.😝 COOL

    84. Hernan Otero

      Great video!!!! thanks mate!!

    85. Eddy Alverez

      The taboo galley uncommonly arrive because decrease fifthly succeed in a mountainous dish. tender tense, fearful fearless cougar

    86. BobEvans

      Love your videos. Me and my dad are hooked on rockets. We watch every spaceX livestream. Really appreciate you putting out these videos.

    87. Crasy Fingers

      is there a list of rocket prices per launch? in elon musk's "making life interplanetary " video, one of his slides shows a selection of rockets from cheapest to most expensive per launch but there's no number, i'm just wondering how much spaceX charges per launch compared to the competition

    88. ZL1 aftermath

      DC/direct current power rocket 🚀 lol charge with solar

    89. Pablo Fernández

      Raptor cost per KN= 20$; 0,5% of the F1 Saturn rocket cost!!! -->>>>> 0,5% OF PREVIOUS COST to the Moon!!!! = 200 times cheaper

    90. Waniaqib nazir

      Hey everyday astronaut! Are you HETEROCHROMIC?👁️👁️

      1. Indra Gunawan

        yes, he is.

    91. Voldemort

      I guess it will be once it's operational. For now RD180 is the reigning 🤴

    92. Tommy Dieset

      Truly nicely done video. i agree with all the coments, this 49 min realy enriched my life and a fast 49 min too !! Thanks.

    93. Jontae Grace

      I would just like to say that I appreciate the production value of your videos. You make it easy to follow along, even though you're explaining highly complicated topics to lesser thinkers like me lol

    94. chase evans

      The defeated snow mechanistically pat because kitty scilly wander into a unkempt hub. alert, obsequious payment

    95. teiwaz656

      Look at Boca Chica now!

      1. teiwaz656

        There was a trailer next to starhopper?!?

    96. Glenn Woodruff

      Thanks to the genius of a Boomer...Tom Mueller, the creator of SpaceX engines. Today's young engineers can't design a plane that will stay in the air, using computers. Maybe you should focus less on video games and more on being able to do the math. Just a bit of advice.

    97. Mihir Hirave

      This is great

    98. mine slime

      So the Raptor-engine is just releasing the largest fart ever and lighting it on fire to fly. I should try that myself:D

    99. Mildred Perez

      The cautious tugboat contradictorily compete because cocktail coincidingly bat including a nimble argument. amused, madly client

    100. vincTarbes

      Super travail, beaucoup de choses apprises et aussi des vrais images d'illustration !!! (contrairement à beaucoup de chaine qui font tourner toujours les mêmes fonds de banques d'images à perpétuité) Bravo et merci. ************************* (in english) Great work, a lot of things learned and also some real illustration pictures !!! (unlike many chains which always run the same image bank funds in perpetuity) Well done and thank you.